The use of tropes (e.g., metaphors, ellipsis) in messages from health mass media campaigns may spark conversations. Tropes require additional cognitive elaboration to arrive at the intended interpretation, thereby providing the audience with ‘‘the pleasure of text.’’ These characteristics make them useful for conversations in which ads are used to demonstrate one’s interpretation abilities or to strengthen group identity through a shared appreciation of ads. Tropes can thus stimulate people to think and talk about information they might otherwise ignore. As a result, this information is primed, increasing the chance that it will influence relevant behavior. At the same time, the use of tropes may have undesirable side effects such as yielding incomprehension or misunderstanding of the message’s meaning.

Key Words: Rhetorical figures • Health communication • Campaigns • Conversations
A rhetorical figure (for instance the antithesis in "Come in and find out" in a Dutch perfume ad) communicates an advertising message in an artfully divergent way. Two types of rhetorical figures are frequently distinguished, namely schemes (superficial decorations such as rhyme and alliteration) and tropes (meaningful deviations such as metaphors and puns). However, until now little attention has been paid to rhetorical figures that can be found in combinations of text and image (i.e., verbo-pictorial rhetorical figures). In this article, an experiment and interviews are presented on the effects of non-rhetorical figures, verbo-pictorial schemes and verbo-pictorial tropes on attitudes towards advertisements. In the experiment, twelve real-life advertisements (4 per category: non-rhetorical figure, scheme, and trope) were presented to 92 participants. The results show that attitudes towards ads with verbo-pictorial tropes (and advertisements without rhetorical figures) are less favourable than those towards advertisements with verbo-pictorial schemes. This could be explained by the fact that relatively more participants failed to come up with successful interpretations of the ads with these tropes and that attitudes were less favourable towards advertisements that were unsuccessfully interpreted than towards advertisements that were successfully interpreted.

Key Words: rhetoric • rhetorical figures • multimodality • advertising • attitude towards the advertisement
Recent meta-analyses of HIV/AIDS health communication show that fear appeals have a negative effect on condom use. It has been argued that these negative effects may apply to certain behaviors (condom use) but not to others (e.g., sexual abstinence), and that these negative effects occur for Western cultures but not necessarily for African cultures. To assess whether the effects of fear appeals depend on the types of behavior recommended and on the cultural background of the target audience, information is needed on the existence of cultural differences with respect to the fear evoked by various consequences, as well as to the perceived effectiveness of various countermeasures. In this study, we present the results of a survey among 435 South African adolescents (age 12–19) who differ with respect to their cultural orientation, living circumstances, religion, etc. The results provide evidence for the presence of cultural differences with respect to evoked fear, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, the results provide a possible explanation why fear appeals often are ineffective within the context of communication about HIV/AIDS.

Key Words: fear appeals • cultural differences • health communication • persuasion • South Africa
Cultural differences in reasoning and persuasion have mainly been documented for the East-West divide. Nisbett (2003) expects such differences to be absent for Western cultures because of their shared Grecian inheritance. The results of two experiments, however, show that France and The Netherlands, both Western European countries, differ with respect to the persuasiveness of different evidence types. In Study 1 (N = 600), cultural differences occurred between the relative persuasiveness of anecdotal, statistical, causal, and expert evidence. In Study 2 (N = 600), the quality of statistical and expert evidence was manipulated. For the Dutch, but not for the French, normatively strong evidence was more persuasive than normatively weak evidence for both evidence types. Implications and possible explanations are discussed.

Key Words: Argument Quality • Evidence • France • Persuasion • The Netherlands
Exemplars are capable of influencing perceptions of reality in newspaper contexts. Can exemplars in fund-raising letters also influence the responsibility stereotype of the group funds are raised for and the effectiveness of these letters? In three experiments, 679 participants received a fund-raising letter containing an exemplar that was or was not held responsible for the trouble he or she was in. In all experiments, the responsibility perception of the group as a whole was influenced by the exemplar manipulation. If the group members were held responsible for the trouble they were in, participants were less inclined to donate money unless the trouble was considered very severe. The study shows how exemplars influence responsibility stereotypes and the persuasiveness of fund-raising letters.

Key Words: exemplars • fund-raising • persuasion • responsibility stereotypes
Previous studies have documented cultural differences in responding to advertising appeals. In the majority of these studies, the responses of US students to different value appeals were compared to those of Asian students. As a result, the type of value appeals studied is limited to appeals to individualistic and collectivistic values. In this study, two experiments are reported on in which the students come from a number of Western European countries (Belgium, the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain) and in which appeals to different values are used (modesty, success, adventure, safety). The results revealed clear preferences for the modesty and the adventure appeals regardless of the participants’ nationality. The results raise questions about what would make participants from different cultures respond differently to different value appeals and whether adaptation of values is necessary in Western Europe.

Key Words: Value appeals • cultural differences • persuasion • international advertising • uncertainty avoidance • masculinity
Fear appeals are frequently used in health communication to persuade people to adopt a new type of behavior (e.g., practicing safe sex) because their current behavior (e.g., having unsafe sex) is likely to result in harmful consequences. A fear appeal’s persuasiveness depends on the extent to which the consequences are perceived as undesirable and realistic and on the extent to which the proposed alternative behavior is considered effective and feasible. In an experiment, the perceived threat and self-efficacy were manipulated by means of an exemplar in which a person either succeeded in performing the propagated behavior (and, consequently, did not suffer the harmful consequences) or in which the person did not succeed in performing the propagated behavior (and, consequently, did suffer the harmful consequences). A total of 149 participants read one of the versions and indicated their intention to perform the propagated behavior, their perception of its feasibility, and their inclination to minimize the message. The results showed that the version in which the person succeeded in performing the behavior yielded a more positive self-efficacy perception and stronger acceptance of the message claim. The version in which the person failed to perform the behavior yielded a more negative self-efficacy perception and more negative intention to perform the behavior propagated. Further statistical analysis showed that the effects on intention were mediated by the message minimization.

Key Words: health communication • fear appeal • exemplars • extended parallel processing model
Puns are popular rhetorical figures in advertisements. A distinction can be made between puns in which both interpretations are relevant to the advertiser’s message (e.g., ‘‘The gift that leaves you beaming’’ in an advertisement for a small flashlight) and puns in which only one interpretation is relevant (e.g., ‘‘Roses grow on you’’ for Cadbury’s Roses chocolates). In recent publications, different predictions have been made as to whether slogans containing puns in general are appreciated more than slogans without a pun, and also whether puns containing two relevant interpretations are appreciated more than puns containing only one relevant interpretation. This paper reports on an experiment to test these hypotheses. Sixty-eight participants rated their appreciation of 24 slogans. The results showed that the presence or absence of puns had a significant impact on the respondents’ appreciation of the slogans. Furthermore, whether the pun contained two relevant interpretations or only one did not influence the extent to which they were considered funny, but the former were considered a better choice than the latter.

Key Words: Relevance Theory • Puns • Advertising
Some companies invest large amounts of money in corporate art collections. One of the reasons for this investment may be that works of art can be used to communicate corporate identity. The aim of this study was to explore whether people are able to align a work of art with a given corporate identity. Forty-six participants rated the fit of eight works of art with four different corporate identities of existing companies. The results showed that participants agree strongly with respect to whether a work of art was aligned with a specific identity. That works of art can be recognized as aligned with a company’s identity has important implications for companies that use reproductions of works of art to decorate their walls insofar as customers may take the art as a symbol of the company’s identity.

Key Words: corporate image • corporate identity • corporate art collections • corporate social responsibility • corporate communication
Some advertisements attract our attention because we do not immediately see what they are about. They incite us to reflect upon the delivered message. Several studies have shown that this kind of implicit messages can have a considerable impact on readers/viewers: elaboration, retention and appreciation appear to increase (Peracchio & Meyers-Levy, 1994, Phillips, 2000, Tom & Eves, 1999, Toncar & Munch, 2001, Mothersbaugh et al., 2002). But what if the complexity of the advertisement exceeds the reader/viewer’s capacity of resolution? What are the consequences for the appreciation of the ad? This paper reports an experiment to test the effect of 3 levels of implicitness on the appreciation of advertisements. 88 participants rated their appreciation and experienced complexity of 12 advertisements. The results showed that the level of implicitness has a significant impact on the ad’s appreciation. Furthermore, it appeared that appreciation followed an inverted U-curve: advertisements that were considered most difficult to understand were less appreciated than relatively less complex advertisements.

Key Words: advertising • implicitness • complexity • appreciation
There is an ongoing debate as to whether cultural differences necessitate adaptation of advertisements to local circumstances in international business communication. In particular, value appeals are thought to be culturally sensitive because cultures differ with respect to which values are considered important, and it is thought that appealing to important values is more persuasive than appealing to ones less important. This article reports on an experiment in which the persuasiveness of an appeal to security was compared to that of an appeal to adventure. The relative persuasiveness of these appeals was studied in countries (i.e., Belgium, France and Spain) that are characterized as high uncertainty avoidance cultures, and a country characterized as a low uncertainty avoidance culture: The Netherlands. Results showed that the two value appeals proved equally persuasive for all countries.

Key Words:
In order to answer the question whether it is wise to adapt a document to the culture it is to be used in, one can conduct an experiment with ‘cultural difference’ as one of the main variables. In this article, we discuss three problems that researchers encounter when conducting such experiments. First, employing ‘nationality’ to operationalize cultural differences leads to interpretation problems when differences in responses occurs. Cultures differ from each other on a large number of dimensions. Each dimension constitutes an alternative explanation for any difference in response between members from different cultures. Second, it is difficult to construct documents and measurement instruments that are equivalent in all cultures included in a survey. The question is whether documents can have equivalent meanings, and whether questionnaires measure the same concept in two or more cultures. Third, members of certain cultures are reluctant to use the ends of rating scales, whereas members of other cultures use them freely. For each of these problems, we present solutions.

Key Words: cultural differences • document design • experiment • ‘extremity of response’ problem • China • United States • product documentation
One of the problems we have to solve in teaching our students is how to make their classroom activities relevant to the world around them and, wherever possible, to provide them with assignments in their final year of studies that both prepare them for their Masters dissertation and at the same time allow them to carry out research relevant to real people and the real world. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary and intercultural advertising project consisting of several interconnected assignments that meet uhese goals.

Key Words:
Claims about the occurrence of future events play an important role in pragmatic argumentation. Such claims can be supported by inductive arguments employing anecdotal, statistical, or causal evidence. In an experiment, the actual and perceived persuasiveness of these three types of evidence were assessed. A total of 324 participants read a newspaper article in which it was claimed that the building of a cultural centre would be profitable. This claim was supported by either anecdotal, statistical or causal evidence. The statistical evidence proved to be more convincing than the anecdotal and causal evidence. Although the latter two evidence types were equally unconvincing, the anecdotal evidence was perceived as less persuasive than the causal evidence. Therefore, the actual and perceived persuasiveness of the evidence did not correspond. These results partly replicate the results obtained in previous experiments. They also underscore the need to distinguish between the perceived and the actual persuasiveness of an argument.

Key Words: Evidence • experiment • persuasion
The structural affect theory (Brewer and Lichtenstein, 1982) states that different affective responses can be evoked by manipulating the order in which a story's events are narrated. Suspense is evoked by postponing the story's outcome, curiosity is evoked by presenting the outcome before the preceding events, and surprise is evoked by an unexpected event. Apart from evoking different affective responses, the manipulation of the event order can influence the cognitive processing as well. In this paper, an experiment is described in which the affective and cognitive effects of suspense, curiosity, and surprise structures are studied using a story by a professional author. The results showed that suspense can be evoked even when readers know how the story will end. The inclusion of a surprising event is highly appreciated. Furthermore, it leads to a better representation of the story's events, as was predicted by Kintsch (1980).

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An introduction, even a short one, makes audiences more willing to listen to a speech, think more highly of the speaker, and understand a speech better than when no introduction is given. Two experiments at Delft University of Technology supports this conclusion. Subjects viewed videotapes of professional presentations on the topic of Sick Building Syndrome. In one experiment, subjects rated the effectiveness of three introductory or "exordial" techniques in gaining audience attention: an anecdote, an ethical appeal, and a "your problem" approach. Results indicate that audiences do respond to exordial techniques, and in a predictable manner. In the second experiment, two speeches with anecdotal openers were tested against one without any introduction. The anecdotes led to significantly higher ratings of the presentation's comprehensibility and interest, as well as the speaker's credibility. The presence of an anecdote also resulted in higher retention scores. Oddly enough, the relevance of the anecdote did not seem to make a difference in the ratings.

Key Words:
Negative publicity in newspapers can cause severe and lasting damage to a company's corporate reputation. Judges can order a newspaper to publish a correction if they find the publication to be unjustified or incorrect. The goal of this correction is to repair the damage to the company's reputation. The question may be asked whether corrections achieve this goal. Previous research has shown that people tend to stick to their initial beliefs regardless of whether they are contradicted by new information or not. An experiment was conducted to study whether corrections succeed in repairing such damage. The ratings of a company's repu tation were obtained after the subjects had read either an objective newspaper report or a subjective one, or after reading the same subjective report followed by a correction. The results show that reading the correction results in similar corporate reputation ratings as reading the objective version does. Reading the subjective version leads to more negative ratings of the company's corporate reputation. Therefore, the results show that, at least under certain circumstances, a correction can repair the damage caused by unjustified negative publicity.

Key Words:
Due to a new press policy, the Dutch equivalent of the District Attorney's office actively spreads information about its suspicions of illegal behavior. Newspa pers, which are still a dominant form of news in the Netherlands, publish these suspicions. This will probably harm the suspected person's or company's image. This study addresses three questions. First, how severe is the damage caused by negative publicity in a Dutch regional daily? Second, are Dutch newspaper readers sensitive to the tone of certainty with which the accusations are expressed? Third, how lasting are any of these effects? In a field experiment, 448 readers of regional dailies, differing widely in age and education level, read either an actually published newspaper article on a possible bribery scandal, a more objective rewrite of this article, or some neutral information on the com pany s activities. Results show that the corporate image was seriously damaged by negative publicity. The more categorical the accusations were, the more damage there was. More than two weeks after reading the article, damage to the image was still present.

Key Words:
Students can be regarded as professional readers: they have to attend to, comprehend and remember the most important information in instructional texts, often about topics they are not readily interested in. Optimising such instructional texts has been the subject of much reading research. This research has shown robust effects for the influence of text structure: information highlighted by a strongly organising structure is retained better than seemingly less important information. Hidi and Baird (1986) suggest that such effects of structure are artefacts, because of the dullness of texts used in such experiments. They argue that readers mainly use interest instead of structure as their guide for attention and learning. In this article three related experiments using Dutch instructional texts are reported. Both interest and text structure were manipulated as within-item factors, and on-line as well as off-line methods were used to measure effects on the reading process and product. The outcome show no support for the hypothesis of Hidi and Baird: students learn better from texts that are well structured, regardless of the interest of the text or its topic.

Key Words:
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English publications

Hoeken, H., Swanepoel, P. H., Saal, E. O., & Jansen, C. (in press). Using Message Form to Stimulate Conversations: The Case of Tropes. Communication Theory, 19,

Enschot, R. van, Hoeken, H., & Mulken, M. van (2008). Rhetoric in advertising: Attitudes towards verbo-pictorial figures. Information Design Journal, 16, 35-45.

Jansen, C., Hoeken, H., Ehlers, D., & Slik, F. van der (2008). Cultural differences in perceptions of fear and efficacy in South Africa. Adapting Health Communication to Cultural Needs (pp. 107-128). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Swanepoel, P. H., & Hoeken, H. (Eds.) (2008). Adapting Health Communication to Cultural Needs. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Hoeken, H., & Swanepoel, P. (2008). Optimizing health communication in South Africa: An introduction. In P. Swanepoel & H. Hoeken (Eds.), Adapting health communication to cultural needs (pp. 1-10). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Hornikx, J., & Hoeken, H. (2007). Cultural differences in the persuasiveness of evidence types and evidence quality. Communication Monographs, 74 (4), 443-463.

Hoeken, H., & Hustinx, L. (2007). The impact of exemplars on responsibility stereotypes in fund-raising letters. Communication Research, 34 (6), 596-617.

Hoeken, H., Starren, M., Nickerson, C., Crijns, R., & Brandt, C. van den (2007). Is it necessary to adapt advertising appeals for national audiences in Western Europe? Journal of Marketing Communications, 13, 19-38.

Hoeken, H., & Hustinx, L. (2007). The influence of additional information on the persuasiveness of flawed arguments by analogy. In F. H. van Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Willard, & B. Garssen (Eds.), Proceedings of the sixth conference of the international society for the study of argumentation (pp. 625-630). Amsterdam: SicSat.

Hustinx, L., Enschot, R. van, Hoeken, H. (2007). Argument quality in the elaboration likelihood model: An empirical study of strong and weak arguments. In F. H. van Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Willard, & B. Garssen (Eds.), Proceedings of the sixth conference of the international society for the study of argumentation (pp. 651-657). Amsterdam: SicSat.

Enschot, R. van, Hoeken, H., & Mulken, M. van (2006). Rhetoric in advertising: Attitudes towards schemes and tropes in text and image. In: S. Diehl & R. Terlutter (Eds.), International Advertising and Communication (pp. 141-162). Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts Verlag Gabler Edition Wissenschaft.

Hoeken, H. & Geurts, D. (2005). The influence of exemplars in fear appeals on the perception of self-efficacy and message acceptance. Information Design Journal + Document Design, 13, 240-250.

Mulken, M. van, Enschot, R. van, & Hoeken, H. (2005). Puns, relevance and appreciation in advertisements. Journal of Pragmatics, 37, 707-721.

Hoeken, H., & Ruikes, L. (2005). Art for Art’s Sake? An Exploratory Study of the Possibility to Align Works of Art with an Organization’s Identity. Journal of Business Communication, 42, 233-246.

Mulken, M. van, Enschot, R. van, & Hoeken, H. (2005). Levels of implicitness in magazine advertisements: An experimental study into the relationship between complexity and appreciation in magazine advertisements. Information Design Journal + Document Design, 13, 155-164.

Van Enschot - van Dijk, R., Van Mulken, M. & Hoeken, H. (2004). Rhetorical Figures in Magazine Advertisements: A Corpus Analytical and Experimental Study of the Relationship Between Rhetorical Figures, Complexity and Appreciation. In 3rd International Conference on Research in Advertising (ICoRIA), Conference Proceedings (p. 159-164), Norwegian School of Management. ISBN 82 7042 642 3

Van Enschot, R., Hustinx, L., & Hoeken, H. (2003). The concept of argument quality in the Elaboration Likelihood Model. In F. H. van Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Willard, & A. F. Snoeck Henkemans (Eds.,), Anyone who has a view. Theoretical contributions to the Study of Argumentation (pp. 319-335). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Hoeken, H., Brandt, C. van den, Crijns, R., Dominguez, N., Hendriks, B., Planken, B., & Starren, M. (2003). International advertising in Western Europe: Should differences in uncertainty avoidance be considered when advertising in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Spain. The Journal of Business Communication, 40, 195-218.

van Dijk, R. van, Hustinx, L., & Hoeken, H. (2003). A normative and empirical approach to Petty and Cacioppo’s ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ arguments. In F. H. van Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Willard, & A. F. Snoeck Henkemans (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (pp. 265-270). Amsterdam: SicSat.

Hoeken, H., & Hustinx, L. (2003a). The relative persuasiveness of anecdotal, statistical, causal, and expert evidence. In F. H. van Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Willard, & A. F. Snoeck Henkemans (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (pp. 497-502). Amsterdam: SicSat.

Hoeken, H., & Korzilius, H. (2003). Conducting experiments on cultural aspects of document design: Why and how? Communications. The European Journal of Communication Research, 28, 283-302.

Hornikx, J., Starren, M., & Hoeken, H. (2003). Cultural influence on the relative occurrence of evidence types. In F. H. van Eemeren, J. A. Blair, C. A. Willard, & A. F. Snoeck Henkemans (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (pp. 531-536). Amsterdam: SicSat.

Nickerson, C., & Hoeken, H. (2003). Remarkable or modest? The role played by culture in advertising. Business Communication Quarterly, 66, 61-71.

Hoeken, H. (2003). Means of persuasion: Analogies, rhetorical figures, and stories. Document Design, 4 (1), 89-92.

Hoeken, H. (2003). Advertising and the new media. Document Design, 4 (2), 174-177.

Hoeken, H. (2003). Message framing, moods, and emotions. Document Design, 4 (3), 269-271.

Hoeken, H. (2002). Effective advertising: Argument or entertainment? Document Design, 3 (1), 86-88.

Hoeken, H. (2002). Research on web advertising. Document Design, 3 (2), 180-183.

Hoeken, H. (2002). Culture and choice of arguments. Document Design, 3 (3), 261-263.

Hoeken, H. (2001). Anecdotal, statistical, and causal evidence: Their perceived and actual persuasiveness. Argumentation, 15, 425-437.

Hoeken, H. (2001). Convincing citizens: The role of argument quality. In D. Janssen & R. Neutelings (Eds.), Reading and writing public documents (pp. 147-169). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Hoeken, H. (2001). Business and marketing communication in an international context. Document Design, 2 (1), 95-97.

Hoeken, H. (2001). Ancient rhetoric and current research: Research on the effects of figurative language in persuasive documents. Document Design, 2 (2), 199-202.

Hoeken, H. (2001). Emotions and the persuasion process. Document Design, 2 (3), 301-304.

Hoeken, H. (2001). Review of J.P. Jones (2000). International advertising.Realities and myths. Communications, 26, 315-317.

Hoeken, H., & Renkema, J. (2000). Can corrections repair the damage to a corporate image caused by negative publicity? In C. B. M. van Riel (Ed.), Strategic corporate communication (pp. 317-329). Alphen aan de Rijn: Samsom.

Hoeken, H., & Vliet, M. van (2000). Suspense, curiosity, and surprise: How discourse structure influences the affective and cognitive processing of a story. Poetics, 26, 277-286.

Hoeken, H. (2000). Review of M. de Mooij (1998). Global marketing and advertising. Communications, 25, 350-352.

Hoeken, H. (1999). The perceived and actual persuasiveness of different types of inductive arguments. In F. H. van Eemeren, R. Grootendorst, J. A. Blair, & C. A. Willard (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth international society for the study of argumentation (pp. 353-357). Amsterdam: SicSat.

Hoeken, H. (1999). The desert heuristic in a Dutch fundraising letter. Do you get what you deserve?. In A. Maes, H. Hoeken, L. Noordman, & W. Spooren (Eds.), Document Design. Linking writers’ goals to readers’ needs. Proceedings of the first international conference on document design (pp. 59-69). Tilburg: Discourse Studies Group. ISBN 90-72297-07-5.

Hoeken, H., Maes, A., Noordman, L., & Spooren, W. (1999). Introduction. In A. Maes, H. Hoeken, L. Noordman, & W. Spooren (Eds.), Document Design. Linking writers’ goals to readers’ needs. Proceedings of the first international conference on document design (pp. 1-4). Tilburg: Discourse Studies Group. ISBN 90-72297-07-5.

Maes, A., Hoeken, H., Noordman, L., & Spooren, W. (Eds.) (1999). Document design. Linking writers’ goals to readers’ needs. Proceedings of the first international conference on document design. Tilburg: Discourse Studies Group. ISBN 90-72297-07-5.

Renkema, J., Hoeken, H., & Spooren, W. (1999). New horizons in document design. The quest for better documents. Document Design, 1, 1-6.

Hoeken, H. (1999). Review of K. A. Schriver (1997). Dynamics in Document Design. Communications, 24, 134-136.

Hoeken, H. (1999). Review of M. Allen & R. W. Preiss (Eds.) (1998). Persuasion. Advances through meta-analyses. Communications, 24, 375-376.

Hoeken, H. (1999). Intercultural communication: Cultural differences in the persuasion process. Document Design, 1, 66-69.

Hoeken, H. (1999). The influence of advertising on buying and experiencing products. Document Design, 1, 137-140.

Hoeken, H. (1999). The use of verbal and visual rhetorical figures in advertising. Document Design, 1, 225-227.

Andeweg, B. A., Jong, J. C. de, & Hoeken, H. (1998). "May I have your attention?": Exordial techniques in informative oral presentations. Technical Communication Quarterly, 7, 271-284.

Hoeken, H. (1998). Problem-solution structures in persuasive texts: Effects on attention, comprehension, and yielding. Communications, 23, 61-81.

Hoeken, H., & Renkema, J. (1998). Can corrections repair the damage to a corporate image caused by negative publicity? Corporate Reputation Review, 2 (1), 47-56.

Renkema, J., & Hoeken, H. (1998). The influence of negative newspaper publicity on corporate image in the Netherlands. Journal of Business Communication, 35, 521-535.

Spooren, W., Mulder, M., & Hoeken, H. (1998). The role of interest and text structure in professional reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 21, 109-120.

Hoeken, H. (1998). Review of J. W. Dearing & E. M. Roger (1996). Communication Concepts 6: Agenda-setting. Communications, 23, 244-245.

Hoeken, H. (1998). Review of P. Messaris (1997). Visual persuasion. Comunications, 23, 392-393.

Hoeken, H. (1997). Contextual parameters in the evaluation of persuasive texts: A cognitive processing approach. In L. Lentz & H. Pander Maat (Eds.), Discourse analysis and evaluation: functional approaches (pp. 139-156). Amsterdam: Rodopi. 90-420-0119-4.

Hoeken, H. (1996a). Facts or feelings: The persuasive effects of the conceptual and affective meaning of adjectives in coherent texts. Communications, 21, 257-272.

Hoeken, H. (1995). The design of persuasive texts: Effects of content, structure, and style on attitude formation. Proefschrift KU Brabant.

Hoeken, H. (1994a). Evaluating persuasive texts: The problems of how and what to measure. In L. van Waes, E. Woudstra & P. van den Hoven (Eds.), Functional Communication Quality (pp. 76-87). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Hoeken, H., Mom, M., & Maes, A. A. (1994). Translating hierarchical instructions into linear text: Depth-first versus breadth-first approaches. In M. Steehouder et al. (Eds.), Quality of technical documentation (pp. 99-113). Amsterdam: Rodopi.